surface grinding machine

Guide of Surface Grinder: How Does Surface Grinding Machine Works and Its Evolution

Surface grinding is an abrasive process. It involves securing the object to a device that will hold it in place (a chuck) before slowly moving the object’s surface across a grinding wheel that’s spinning really fast. This will generate a flat plane wherever the machine comes into contact with the object. It also gives the object an even finish. The longer the wheel spends working on the cutting depth, as well as using a surface grinding wheel with a higher grit count will further improve the surface’s finish. By slowly increasing the depth of the cut the machinist will be able to achieve these things.


Introducing the Surface Grinder

The surface grinding machine is the most common type of grinding machine found in any shop. You can actually compare it to milling cutter that has multiple teeth but the surface grinding machine has a grinding wheel, which makes it an abrasive cutting tool. The wheel is used to remove really small pieces of metal (known as swarf). It works because the wheel is made up of thousands of cutting edges.


These surface grinding tables are used for several different purposes including removing excess material. They work really well on very hard materials (i.e. steel, diamonds) to produce a very high quality finished surface.


How a Surface Grinding Machine Works?

The surface grinding machine’s chuck moves back and forth once the table has raised the object so that it’s slightly deeper within the wheel. There are intervals that can be set (i.e. 0.001 inches / 0.0254 mm) with each pass. As the grinding wheel rotates with its abrasive particles small amounts of the object’s material will be removed each time in order to create a flat surface. For this reason, the surface grinding process is usually a finishing step that’s designed to bring an object to a certain tolerance but the procedure is often followed up with a polishing procedure during the grinding-and-lapping process.


Evolution of the Surface Grinder

Over the course of time, the surface grinding machine has evolved. Today there are even some machines that are ergonomic, as well as those that are portable. Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) grinders are also available. Regardless of the type of machine you choose to use, it will be controlled by a computer interface today.


Materials Used In a Surface Grinder

There are 2 types of abrasive materials that are used within the grinding wheel:


  1. Aluminum oxide is used whenever the materials that are being ground have a high ductility or the ability to permanently become deformed.


  1. Silicon oxide is used whenever the materials that are being ground have a low ductility.


Regardless of what type of material you’re grinding (i.e. steel, aluminum, glass) the machine’s abrasive grains will allow for a smooth finish. Usually these abrasive grains are coated with diamonds.


Types of Surface Grinders

A grinding wheel has a doughnut-like design. The hole in the middle slides down over the top of a metal rod (spindle). Today these machines are being made by lots of different manufacturers and so there are a lot of different models available to choose from. Nevertheless, they still use one of the following types of structure:


  1. A vertical spindle design has a spindle that’s pointing straight up and down. The grinding wheel itself lays flat on its face at the bottom of this spindle so that the wheel’s full width can be utilized in grinding the object. Typically, this type of design is used whenever working on larger panels or sheets of materials or whenever there’s a lot of materials that need to be quickly ground.


  1. A horizontal spindle design has a wheel that’s suspended over the table. Only the wheel’s flat, outside edge will come into contact with the object that’s being secured by the chuck. Thanks to the smaller grinding surface it’s possible to have great precision whenever you’re making a cut, which is why they’re typically used whenever small features (i.e. angles, profiles) are needed.


In the same way as there are 2 common types of spindles, there are also 2 common types of surface grinding machines, both of which only grind flat surfaces. These include:


  1. Planer grinders keep the grinding wheel in one place while the worktable around it is being moved, creating a reciprocating back-and-forth motion that can be controlled either manually or via a mechanic or hydraulic drive mechanism. The spindle that’s used to rotate the grinding wheel can be placed either vertically or horizontally.


  1. Rotary-type grinders have circular shaped worktables that revolve, as does the grinding wheel itself. They can be either vertical or horizontal.


If you have interest or requirement of surface grinding machines, I recommend you to visit Joen Lih Machinery Co., Ltd. – they are the leading manufacturer of surface grinder located in Taiwan. Their surface grinding machines are including semi-auto precision series, hydraulic series and auto down series. All Joen Lih precision surface grinding machines provide as standard equipment an electrically driven automatic lubrication system, they provide you the stable, safe and high efficiency surface grinding machines. Now, contact with Joen Lih for more details!


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Do You Know What The Advantages of Surface Grinders Are?

Surface grinders are commonly used in machine shops for finish work. These grinders utilize a rotating grinding wheel to produce a smooth, uniform surface on metallic or non-metallic objects with an incredible degree of precision. There are many benefits to using surface grinders.



Surface grinding can be performed on a wide variety of materials, including materials that are abrasive or hard, and metallic or non-metallic. This versatility makes surface grinding a useful technology, and provides advantages over other finishing options like planing or milling.



Surface grinding can be performed with a high degree of accuracy. High-quality machines can grind to an accuracy of 0.0001 inches, and can reliably produce pieces within precise dimensions.


Integrated chucks help to hold materials perfectly in place during the grinding operation to assure a high-quality product. Both metallic and non-metallic materials may be securely locked for grinding.



Surface grinders are able to produce materials with a precise, high-quality finish. It is hard to beat the finish that can be produced with a quality surface grinder.


Automatic or Manual

Surface grinders may be manual or automatic.


If you are seeking high-quality and high-performance surface grinders, I highly recommend surface grinding machines from Tong Yi Machinery Inc... The company specializes in kinds of grinding machines for years. Thus, they deeply understand customers’ needs. To get more information, welcome to check out their website and feel free to contact with Tong Yi Machinery.



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How Does a Surface Grinder Work?


A surface grinder is a device that is used to accurately and intricately remove unneeded layers from a surface in an effort to smooth the target layer. The reason that a surface grinder is used is that it provides a great level of accuracy and detail that is sometimes difficult to achieve by hand. The use of a surface grinder is concentrated in heavy industry, especially in the automotive industry. Surface grinders are used on various types of metal and woods. The surface being worked on is directly related to the blade being used as they are specialized for different surfaces. This is a better option than trying to grind a surface by hand as it is less time consuming.


The amount of time it takes to grind a surface depends on the skill of the user and the surface being ground. The best safety guideline with a surface grinder is to take your time. Most accidents happen by using the wrong blade with the wrong material or running the blade on the grinder faster than the speed it was meant to run at. A surface grinder can be used to prepare surfaces such as floors and sheet metal for cars.


How It Works

The typical surface grinder has a table that is capable of moving forward and backward as well as side to side. When moving side to side, the table uses hydraulics to move. The machine also has a grinding wheel that rotates and has an adjustable height. The grinding wheel is generally made of diamond, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide or cubic boron nitride. The majority of surface grinders used in the modern era are at least partially automated. The work material is held on the table of a magnetic chuck and sometimes an electro-magnetic chuck depending on the specific machine.


What a Surface Grinder Does To Material

A surface grinder produces a high level of heat which will create stress on the material. After being run through a surface grinder, a material will be more apt to breakage or fracture than before it was run through the machine. A material can also lose its magnetic properties if its temperature is raised too high.


Tong Yi Machinery Inc. is the professional surface grinders manufacturer in Taiwan. Kinds of surface grinding machine series all can be provided by them. If you need further details about surface grinders, welcome to browse Tong Yi’s website or contact with them via email or telephone!


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How to Use a Surface Grinding Machine

A surface grinding machine is used to produce a smooth accurate finish on either metallic or nonmetallic materials. It uses a round rotating abrasive grinding wheel that remains stationary (but rotating) while the feed table (with work attached) is run in a reciprocating motion (left and right) under the grinding wheel. The specific amount of material to remove is determined by lightly touching off on the work with the grinding wheel rotating and feeding the grinding head down a certain distance.


WARNING: If a grinding wheel is permitted to exceed the maximum safe speed, it may disintegrate and cause injury to the operator and damage to the grinding machine!


On a Manual Surface Grinder, you will then need to run the table left and right with one hand wheel while cross-feeding with the other hand wheel.


On an Automatic Surface Grinder, you will then be able to run the table left and right automatically while cross-feeding automatically. All you need to do is set the down feed and stroke.


Typically surface grinders can grind within .0001 – .0002 but not all surface grinders are created equal. The less expensive models may not hold up to tool room accuracies but could be used effectively to sharpen punches, dies or do repair shop work. The more expensive models will use higher quality spindle bearings and other components and will be better able to attain tool room accuracies.


To use the surface grinding machines, you must select the correct grinding wheel for the work to be ground. There are different wheels that are best suited for grinding:


  • High Speed Steel RC 50-68
  • 400 Series Stainless
  • Soft Steels RC 30-45
  • 300 Series Stainless
  • Cast Iron: Ductile & Gray
  • Nonferrous Alloys


In each of the categories above you will need to determine wheel type by deciding if you need heavy (> .004), moderate (.002-.004) or light stock (.001) removal characteristics. Also, you will need to select a Grit size. 46 grit being for general purpose, 60 grit for commercial finish, 80 grit for fine finish and 120 grit for very fine finishes.


After selecting the correct wheel for your job, visually inspect the wheel for any damage or cracks. If no damage is found install the wheel on your surface grinder, tightening the left-hand spindle nut carefully with a spanner wrench. Make sure you replace the guard covering the wheel, put safety glasses on then turn the spindle on. Step away and let the spindle run for 1 minute to make sure the grinding wheel is running smoothly.


Once the grinding wheel has been dressed it is not recommended to turn the spindle off because turning off the spindle will require the wheel to be dressed again for some concentricity will be lost.


You are now ready to dress the wheel using a single point diamond dressing tool that is placed and held down by the magnetic chuck. A small amount of grinding wheel should be dressed off of the diameter in order to make the wheel run concentric. Place the diamond dresser under the rotating wheel and bring down the grinding head carefully so it just touches the dresser. Sweep the diamond dresser across the rotating wheel using the cross feed (y-axis). Feed the grinding head down .002 then sweep the diamond dresser across the rotating wheel. Repeat until the grinding wheel face is clean and running concentric.


After the wheel is dressed and running concentric you will then be ready to gently touch off on the work (using the spark or layout fluid method). Next, set your “zero” on the down feed handle, raise the head slightly to clear work then the cross feed handle to distance the work from the grinding wheel. Next feed the grinding head down a distance not more than .005. The amount of material being removed will determine how far you can feed the cross-feed in per pass.


The benefits of surface grinding are:

  • You can grind very hard or abrasive materials
  • High degree of dimensional accuracy
  • Produces surface textures of very high finish
  • Tooling is less expensive
  • Work holding is easier because of magnetic chuck
  • Can be done automatically


In short, you will most likely need a surface grinder if you need to provide precision ground surfaces, either for a high surface finish or attaining critical dimensions.


Joen Lih Machinery, the professional and leading manufacturer of surface grinding machine located in Taiwan. Our surface grinding machines are including semi-auto precision series, hydraulic series and auto down series. All Joen Lih precision surface grinding machines provide as standard equipment an electrically driven automatic lubrication system, we provide you the stable, safe and high efficiency surface grinding machines. Learn more products information, welcome to visit the website of Joen Lih and feel free to contact us.



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